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What are human rights?

Human rights are rights we have simply because we exist as human beings - they are not granted by any state. These universal rights are inherent to lớn us all, regardless of nationality, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other status. They range from the most fundamental - the right lớn life - khổng lồ those that make life worth living, such as the rights lớn food, education, work, health, & liberty.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1948, was the first legal document khổng lồ mix out the fundamental human rights to lớn be universally protected. The UDHR, which turned 70 in 2018, continues lớn be the foundation of all international human rights law. Its 30 articles provide the principles and building blocks of current & future human rights conventions, treaties và other legal instruments.

The UDHR, together with the 2 covenants - the International Covenant for Civil và Political Rights, và the International Covenant for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights - Cosplay the International Bill of Rights.

Universal & inalienable

The principle of universality of human rights is the cornerstone of international human rights law. This means that we are all equally entitled lớn our human rights. This principle, as first emphasized in the UDHR, is repeated in many international human rights conventions, declarations, & resolutions.

Human rights are inalienable. They should not be taken away, except in specific situations and according to lớn due process. For example, the right khổng lồ liberty may be restricted if a person is found guilty of a crime by a court of law.

Indivisible and interdependent

All human rights are indivisible and interdependent.  This means that one mix of rights cannot be enjoyed fully without the other. For example, making progress in civil & political rights makes it easier khổng lồ exercise economic, social và cultural rights. Similarly, violating economic, social and cultural rights can negatively affect many other rights.

Equal và non-discriminatory

Article 1 of the UDHR states: "All human beings are born không lấy phí & equal in dignity và rights." Freedom from discrimination, phối out in Article 2, is what ensures this equality.   

Non-discrimination cuts across all international human rights law. This principle is present in all major human rights treaties. It also provides the central theme of 2 core instruments: the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, và the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.  

Both rights và obligations

All States have ratified at least 1 of the 9 core human rights treaties, as well as 1 of the 9 optional protocols. 80% of States have ratified 4 or more. This means that States have sầu obligations & duties under international law khổng lồ respect, protect and fulfill human rights.

The obligation to lớn respect means that States must refrain from interfering with or curtailing the enjoyment of human rights. The obligation khổng lồ protect requires States to lớn protect individuals & groups against human rights abuses. The obligation to lớn fulfill means that States must take positive action to lớn facilitate the enjoyment of basic human rights.

Meanwhile, as individuals, while we are entitled to our human rights - but, we should also respect & stand up for the human rights of others.

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