Joanne Rowling was born on 31st July 1965 at Yate General Hospital near Bristol, and grew up in Gloucestershire in Englvà và in Chepstow, Gwent, in south-east Wales.
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Her father, Peter, was an aircraft engineer at the Rolls Royce factory in Bristol & her mother, Anne, was a science technician in the Chemistry department at Wyedean Comprehensive sầu, where Jo herself went to school. Anne was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis when Jo was a teenager and died in 1990, before the Harry Potter books were published. Jo also has a younger sister, Di.
The young Jo grew up surrounded by books. “I lived for books,’’ she has said. “I was your basic common-or-garden bookworm, complete with freckles and National Health spectacles.”
Jo wanted to lớn be a writer from an early age. She wrote her first book at the age of six – a story about a rabbit, called ‘Rabbit’. At just eleven, she wrote her first novel – about seven cursed diamonds and the people who owned them.
Jo studied at Exeter University, where she read so widely outside her French and Classics syllabus that she clocked up a fine of £50 for overdue books at the University library. Her knowledge of Classics would one day come in handy for creating the spells in the Harry Potter series, some of which are based on Latin.
Her course included a year in Paris. “I lived in Paris for a year as a student,” Jo tweeted after the 2015 terrorist attacks there. “It’s one of my favourite places on earth.”
After her degree, she moved to London và worked in a series of jobs, including one as a researcher at Amnesty International. “There in my little office I read hastily scribbled letters smuggled out of totalitarian regimes by men and women who were risking imprisonment khổng lồ insize the outside world of what was happening to them.” She said later. “My small participation in that process was one of the most humbling và inspiring experiences of my life.”
Jo conceived the idea of Harry Potter in 1990 while sitting on a delayed train from Manchester lớn London King’s Cross. Over the next five years, she began lớn bản đồ out all seven books of the series. She wrote mostly in longhvà và gradually built up a mass of notes, many of which were scribbled on odd scraps of paper.
Taking her notes with her, she moved lớn northern Portugal to teach English as a foreign language, married Jorge Arantes in 1992 và had a daughter, Jessica, in 1993. When the marriage ended later that year, she returned khổng lồ the UK khổng lồ live in Edinburgh, with Jessica & a suitcase containing the first three chapters of Harry Potter và the Philosopher’s Stone.
In Edinburgh, Jo trained as a teacher and began teaching in the city’s schools, but she continued to lớn write in every spare moment.
Having completed the full manuscript, she sent the first three chapters lớn a number of literary agents, one of whom wrote back asking lớn see the rest of it. She says it was “the best letter I had ever received in my life.”
The book was first published by Bloomsbury Children’s Books in June 1997, under the name J.K. Rowling.
The “K” stands for Kathleen, her paternal grandmother’s name. It was added at her publisher’s request, who thought a book by an obviously female author might not appeal to lớn the target audience of young boys.
The book was published in the US by Scholastic under a different title (again at the publisher’s request), Harry Potter & the Sorcerer’s Stone, in 1998. Six further titles followed in the Harry Potter series, each achieving record-breaking success.
In 2001, the film adaptation of the first book was released by Warner Bros., và was followed by six more book adaptations, concluding with the release of the eighth film, Harry Potter và the Deathly Hallows Part 2, in 2011.
J.K. Rowling has also written two small companion volumes, which appear as the titles of Harry’s school books within the novels. Fantastic Beasts & Where to lớn Find Them and Quidditch Through the Ages were published in March 2001 in aid of Comic Relief. In December 2008, a third companion volume, The Tales of Beedle the Bard was published in aid of her international children’s charity, Lumos.
In 2012, J.K. Rowling’s digital company Pottermore was launched, which became Wizarding World Digital in 2019. Pottermore Publishing continues khổng lồ be the global digital publisher of Harry Potter, Fantastic Beasts & the Wizarding World.
Also in 2012, J.K. Rowling published her first novel for adults, The Casual Vacancy (Little, Brown), which has now been translated into lớn 44 languages & was adapted for TV by the Đài truyền hình BBC in năm ngoái.
Under the pseudonym Robert Galbraith, J.K. Rowling also writes crime novels, featuring private detective Cormoran Strike. The first of these, The Cuckoo’s Calling, was published to lớn critical acclalặng in 2013, at first without its author’s true identity being known. The Silkworm followed in 2014, Career of Evil in năm ngoái và Lethal White in 2018. All four are published by Little, Brown & have sầu been adapted for television by the BBC and HBO. The fifth book, Troubled Blood is now out & was also an instant bestseller.
J.K. Rowling’s 2008 Harvard commencement speech was published in năm ngoái as an illustrated book, Very Good Lives: The Fringe Benefits of Failure & the Importance of Imagination (Sphere), & sold in aid of Lumos & university-wide financial aid at Harvard.
In năm 2016, J.K. Rowling collaborated with playwright Jack Thorne & director John Tiffany on an original new story for the stage. Harry Potter và the Cursed Child Parts One & Two opened in London & is now playing in the USA & Australia.. The script book was published (Little, Brown) to mark the play’s opening in July năm nhâm thìn, & instantly topped the bestseller lists.
Also in 2016, J.K. Rowling made her screenwriting debut with the film Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, a further extension of the Wizarding World, which was released to lớn critical acclayên ổn in November 2016. This was the first in a series of new adventures featuring Magizoologist Newt Scamander & set before the time of Harry Potter. The second in the series,Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald, was released in 2018.
The screenplays were published (Little, Brown) to coincide with each film release: Fantastic Beasts & Where to Find Them The Original Screenplay (2016) & Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald The Original Screenplay (2018).
In March 2020, J.K. Rowling & Wizarding World partners launched the Harry Potter At Home initiative to entertain children stuck at home during the Covid-19 pandemic with the first Harry Potter book read aloud by celebrities on đoạn Clip, và made available for không lấy phí through audiobook & ebook streaming.
In May 20đôi mươi, J.K. Rowling’s fairy tale for younger children, The Ickabog, was serialised for không tính tiền online for children during the Covid-19 pandemic in the summer of 2020, and is now published as a book illustrated by children, with her royalties going to charities supporting vulnerable groups affected by the pandemic.
J.K. Rowling has been married lớn Dr Neil Murray since 2001. They live in Edinburgh with their son, David (born 2003) and daughter, Mackenzie (born 2005).
Honours & Awards
J.K. Rowling has received many honours & awards, including:
Companion of Honour, for services to literature and philanthropy, 2017PEN America Literary Service Award, 2016Freedom of the City of London, 2012Hans Christian Andersen Award, Denmark, 2010Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur: France, 2009Lifetime Achievement Award, British Book Awards, 2008South Bank Show Award for Outstanding Achievement, 2008James Joyce Award, University College Dublin, 2008The Edinburgh Award, 2008Commencement Day Speaker, Harvard University, USA, 2008Blue Peter Gold Badge, 2007WH Smith Fiction Award, 2004Prince of Asturias Award for Concord, Spain, 2003Order of the British Empire (OBE), 2001Children’s Book of the Year, British Book Awards, 1998 & 1999Booksellers Association tác giả of the Year, 1998 và 1999